There 1998). Self-efficacy is defined as a personal

There is also significant evidence in the literature
supporting that behavior is not always reflected by the assessment of global
self-esteem (Rosenberg, 1989). Self-esteem is not regarded as an indicator of
specific health actions; however, its attributes are constant and may continue
in the adulthood (Kawash, 1982). Self-esteem is a multifaceted personal concept
with many influencing factors. And it is a basic human trait which addresses
the capacity of human being for the aim of increasing their sense of self-worth
by means of coping mechanisms (Johnson, 2012; Kilic, Sokmen, & Ada, 2013;
Rosenberg, Schooler, Schoenbach, & Rosenberg, 1995).


It is important to distinguish self-esteem from the more
general term self-concept and self- efficacy, since the three
terms often are used interchangeably. The self-concept is an internal model
that uses self-assessments in order to define one’s self-schemas (Gerrig, Richard, Zimbardo, , 2002). By
contrast, self-esteem is the emotional response that people experience as they
contemplate and evaluate different things about themselves (Watson& Clark,
1998). Self-efficacy is defined as a personal judgment of how well one
can accomplish courses of action required to deal with prospective situations. According to Skaalvik (2010), self-efficacy is an
agent related to individuals’ perceptions about their capacities in carrying
out the roles prescribed for them in order to achieve a set of goals and

Although self-esteem
is related to the self-concept, it is possible for people to have objectively positive
beliefs (such as skills in academics, athletics, or arts), but continue to not
really like themselves. Conversely, it is possible for people to like
themselves and therefore hold high self-esteem despite their lack of any
objective indicators that support such positive self-views. Although influenced
by the contents of the self-concept, self-esteem is not the same thing (Heatherton&
Wyland, 2011).