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The forecast of the “world population had shown that it will reach 9.2 billion people in 2050 by The United Nations”. As the number of people are gradually increasing, people tend to use up more resources such as land, food, water, air, fossil fuels, and minerals. Because of that, it had impacted the planet and affected biodiversity. Eventually, this will lead to some serious environmental problem. The reason why I chose this topic is that ecosystems are declining around the globe, and I am very concerned about what will happen with the ecosystem for the next decade and so on.

Global Perspectives
   The more people in the world, the higher the chance that the ecosystem will get affected. As the population reaches 7 billion people, the effects of human activities on the ecosystem that the world share with, are impossible to calculate. There are several countries that I had done research on.

   To start off is the Philippines, “Philippine population is 103,8 million in 2017”. The Philippines is a mega diverse country and a global centre for marine shoreline biodiversity (Smith, 24 April 2017). Due to the increase in human population, illegal fishing practice; Illegal collection and exportation of corals and fishes; pollution and erosion produced by human will gradually increase too. Now, it affected the biodiversity in the ocean. Next, there are about 18% of the natural forests remain and only around 3 to 6% of primary forests. Rapid deforestation may threats the habitat and biodiversity including loss of biodiversity, soil erosion, flooding, landslides and reduced water quality. There are species of flora and fauna are declining, and many of them are facing extinction because of habitat loss due to deforestation.

   Furthermore, China is the most populous country in the world. The “population rate in China is about 1,388 billion in 2017”. To start off, there are 682 vertebrates’ species in China and half of them had gone for the past years. The most common threats to biodiversity by human activities and developments are nature degradation and habitat loss. Overhunting and climate change can also affect the habitat of animals. China had already overused their bio capacity- a large area to generate an ongoing supply of renewable resources to absorb wastes in a particular place (GreenFacts), this may cause drought, forest degradation, soil erosion, biodiversity loss and others. China now consumes half the world’s coal supply (Energyskeptic, December 19, 2012). It had released a lot of carbon dioxide to the nation. As they increasingly turned coal for their growing energy demand, air pollution became a major health issue in China (Lo & Hunter, March 1, 2015).

   The last country is India. India is the second populous country in the world after China, it has “approximately 1,342 billion population rate in 2017”. Population growth and economic development are the reasons that lead to environmental problems in India. 18% of the world’s population on 2.4 % of its land area in India is having trouble with the natural resources. These include pressure on land/soil degradation, habitat destruction, air pollution, global warming, climate change and water pollution. Most Indian cities are badly polluted and have little fresh air. This leads to serious diseases and skin infections (Lohar, 19 June 2017).

Local Perspectives 
   Moving on, I will talk about the increase of human population growth in Malaysia that affect the ecosystem. Malaysia is not an overpopulation country yet, now, the population rate in Malaysia is about 31,16 million in 2017. There is a forecast for the population In Malaysia (see figure 1).

Because of the increase in human population, it had threatened the remaining natural areas and environmental quality in Malaysia. Many of Malaysia’s citizen or household tend to throw unrecyclable wastes in open fields and rivers. From 1993 onwards, waste disposal in Malaysia was between 0.34-0.85kg per capita per day; Nevertheless, the capital of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, waste disposal of household is already reached till 0.80-1.30 kg per day. 

   With increasing rate of population, land available is not enough for proper waste disposal. There were 31.9% of waste was being open burning, 6.5% were thrown into the river. In 2011, the Department of Environment says that 39 rivers were polluted, 3,177 open burning cases and about 12 illegal disposals of unrecyclable wastes into the river . In Malaysia, forested lands had been logged to make agriculture and rubber plantations. The effects of deforestation included sediment loads in rivers from soil erosion and the pollution of the river with waste that comes from rubber and palm oil plantation. These waste have a high organic content and have been estimated about 90% of the total pollution happened in the rivers. Due to the loss of their natural habitats, hunting as well as pollution, some species of plants and animals in Malaysia are considered endangered.

   As a result, there is some environmental problem that Malaysia is currently facing. But luckily Malaysia is no longer a poor country and does not need to use up or harvest all their natural resources. For the coming decades, technology will become more advanced , and we will soon see the development of biotechnology. Now, Malaysia is starting to follow the trend of development of the technology of its biodiversity. To become a developed nation by 2020, the rich biodiversity in Malaysia is a natural belonging that can cooperate with other countries to become more successful.

Personal Perspectives 
   In my personal opinion, I think that everyone can’t control the population of their own country. But what we can do is educated and give other people more information about the ecosystem that is happening in the world now. If all of us didn’t take action as quickly as possible, who knows what does the world will be like for the next generation. I believed that if we do it together, we can make a huge change to save our mother nature so that our next generation could still explore and discover more about the world. If the country’s population is increasing rapidly, this doesn’t mean that their ecosystem will be threatened badly. For my way of thinking, the country’s population rate is just a number, the real deal is whether the citizens will come out and work together to protect their own country’s ecosystem so that the ecosystem won’t be damaged so badly. 

   As for the younger generation, their parents had the responsibility to teach them how to protect and save the ecosystem that is around them. There is some example of simple action to help the ecosystem is to use recyclable items, switch off the electricity when you go out, do not simply litter whatever you are, use recycle bag and more to help it. If the parents don’t give a good role model to let their children learn, they will just do the same thing as their parents do. Lastly, give a good education environment to the younger generation, so that they will learn how to protect the ecosystem in the country.

Possible Scenarios
   To start off, there are some environmental problems that affect the ecosystem. First of all, overpopulation affects the ecosystem by putting pressure on many resources. As human population increases, water around the world will decrease. Water is one of the basic things for the ecosystem (Matthew & William, 24 March 2013). Nowadays, water is not only overused, it will also give us water pollution. The main issues that lead to water pollution are deposing waste or toxic substances into lakes, streams, rivers, and groundwater by factories and open mines, which are impossible to purify it, and we will have lesser fresh water to drink. 

   Moreover, forest loss is also the impact made by the human that affect the ecosystem. About 18 million acres of trees are clear-cut every year for wood. Since the human population increase, they tend to cut off trees and burn trees from forests to build more houses or converted it into grazing land. And this can lead to soil degradation, soil degradation is a serious global environmental. When a forest is burned, it causes soil degradation from exposing soil minerals by removing trees and crop, and this can make  the soils become poorer and loses its productivity for many years. As the human population increase rapidly, food production will be increased too. Because there are a lot dry and nutrient-poor areas due to deforestation, farmers tend to plant their food at an unsuitable farming area (Matthew & William, 24 March 2013).

  Furthermore, it will cause generation of waste in the environment such as air pollution. Greenhouse gasses and carbon footprint in the atmosphere are caused by a number of people. The more the number of people, the more the number of vehicles and industries, and it will produce more polluted gases. If the greenhouse gasses and carbon footprint keep increasing, it will definitely cause climate change or global warming. Other than that, smoke that produced by factory can kill living organisms in the ecosystem of air (Matthew & William, 24 March 2013). 

   Habitat loss such as wetlands, wildlife, rainforests, coral reefs and more had become lesser and lesser from the past few years. Now, “rainforest only cover about 6% of the earth’s surface and 30% of the ocean reefs have been lost since 1980 “, it may even become lesser in the next few years because of global warming. All the problems of overpopulation on the ecosystem that had been shown previously can lead to loss of biodiversity of many wildlife species, such as some of the unique natural flora and fauna that had been listed under endangered species. It is because they need to quickly adapt another new environment to survive.

Possible Courses Of Action
    So now we know about the effects it can have, but what can be done about it? There are a number of well-developed solutions. First, we can try to use renewable sources such as the wind and solar instead of fossil fuels so that it will reduce carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas. Assigning ownership of a location to private owners will solve environmental problems (Puja Mondal). There will be ownership law description given to the owner, if there are people against it, the owner can call the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the country to report them if the owner has evidence to prove them. Furthermore, we should make clear about property rights. Lack of property rights can affect the environment, the common example such as cutting public trees off, throwing rubbish, overfishing and more. 

   Later on, government policies can help to reduce degradation of the environment (Puja Mondal), example, they can make decisions regarding quantity, the price of pollution and resource use of technologies to decide whatever there is an environmental problem in it and see if they approve them to do. Next, the school can invite professional to talk about sex education to help students understand more about the consequences of having sex so that birth rates will naturally decline. Lastly, teachers should teach the subject of “overpopulation”, it is still a subject that is not covered in many schools. This can educate them about the consequences of overpopulation and how it can be solved.

  At the beginning, I thought that my country is a clean and environmentally friendly country. But when I do my own research, I only realise that my country is currently facing a lot of problems. There were billions of people on the earth, we just need to work together to solve the problem of population and environment. As long as we are all responsible and work hard to achieve it, it will happen in one day. At that time, everyone could enjoy and live a good life without destroying the ecosystem. In the end, It’s possible to reduce the harm on the environment, but it will take some time and efforts of everyone to achieve the goal.