Namir love each other. The husband and bride

Namir Argilagos

Intro to Anthropology

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Professor Mckenna

15 November, 2017

What’s Love Got to Do With It
Response

1)         Meredith
Smith provides numerous examples of how cultural opinions and our biology can
clash with each other. On page 20, she explains how Western women were
influenced by male Victorian ethic, which stated that women didn’t enjoy sex as
much as their male counterparts. And it wasn’t until the 1970s where women
discovered what female sexuality actually is. Due to society’s opinion on sex
prior to the 1970s, women tended to only have sex when their husband wanted to
perform the act or to get pregnant. Women weren’t allowed to satisfy their
themselves when they became sexually aroused, ignoring their biological
impulses to fit in with society.

2)         Marriage is
the acknowledged form of human mating. Mating is having sex with someone with
the intent of passing along your genes to further generations. Marriage implies
that the two people will be having sex, which means children are likely to be
produced. Although marriage is used for mating purposes and to show that two
people are committed to each other sexually and emotionally, it is also
performed for a number of reasons. For example, in some countries, there are
arranged marriages where the two people are married for wealth, religion, and
social reasons. Typically in these types of marriages, the two people arranged
don’t love each other. The husband and bride usually have affairs with someone
they actually connect with emotionally. Also, while many people believe humans
are naturally monogamous, historical data shows otherwise. On pages 42-44,
Smith talks about how their are usually distinctions between the two sexes and
in the case of primates sized is used. The size differences in primates stem
from males competing for a chance to mate with females in the group, but if
primates were monogamous, then there wouldn’t be a competition to mate and the
two sexes would be closer in size. With this knowledge and with past fossils,
it is suggested that the ancestors of humans, Australopithecus afarensis, were not monogamous as the females were
64 percent of their male counterparts. However, as time goes on, there is less
variance in the sizes of each sex. According to Smith, women are currently 80
percent of the size of men. The data suggests that humans have developed to
become a more monogamous society. In addition to the fossils, Small tells of a
study that was done by two British biologists, which took men in a monogamous
relationship and studied their semen by making the men wear a condom when they
had sex. The data reported that even when the men spent any time away from
their spouse, their sperm count significantly increased. The study showed that
polygamy is in our biology. The increased sperm count is due to the body
wanting to increases its chance of reproducing by increasing the amount of
sperm released to beat any competition trying to mate.

3)         Today,
homosexuality is still a mystery, even though people have been trying to figure
out how homosexuality developed for decades. Many people have formulated
theories on the origins of homosexuality. The psychological origin of
homosexuality started with Freud, which Small explains on pages 198-199. She
begins with Freud’s view on homosexuality, which states that all people are
born bisexual and once people mature, they stop being childish and become more
interested in the opposite sex. Small continues with how psychoanalysts took
Freud’s view on homosexuality and combined it with the Oedipal conflict to
conclude that a male becomes homosexual if their mother is overbearing and the
father is distant. The psychological theory was later disproven by the
psychiatrist Evelyn Hooker. Hooker’s study, which looked at the psychological
history of sixty men, thirty homosexual and thirty heterosexual, showed that a
person’s upbringing isn’t the ultimate determining factor in sexuality, but it
can contribute to it. (Small) In addition to a psycholoigcal origin theory of
homosexualty, there is also a genetic origin theory. Smalls begin to tell of
the studies that led to theory on page 203, in which Dean Hamer looked at the
chromosomal topography and inheritance patterns of gay men. She continues with
the telling of how Hamer discovered that the men has a significantly high
number of homosexual brothers and that the distribution of homosexual males in
the family were evenly distributed along the maternal side of the family tree,
suggesting that homosexuality is genetic. Accompanying the genetic theory,
Smalls notifies us of a fetal theory that scientists have. On the pages of
206-207, she mentions the study by Michael Bailey and Richard Pillard, that
included one hundred and fifteen twin sets, containing identical twins,
fraternal twins and some gay men with adoptive brothers. She goes on to
continue with their findings, which shows that each category had higher
percentages of homosexualuality than the national average leading them to
believe that fetal environment and genes play a role in sexual development.
Going along with the feral explanation, there is a neuronal theory about
homosexuality. Smalls introduces the neuroanatomist who laid the groundwork to
build the theory, Roger Gorski, on page 213. She elaborates on the research
that he performed with the brain, which involved him looking at the four
interstitial nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH) to determine if sex was
linked to the size of one of the INAH. While Gorski wasn’t successful in
finding a connection, Simon Levay was able to. Smalls details on page 104 and
105 how Levay used the size of the INAH helped him formulate a theory. Levay
based his work off of the fact that INAH-2 and -3 were larger in males than in
females, but when he looked at them for homosexual males, the INAH-3 were
practically the same size as it is in females, leading him to conclude that
sexual orientation is linked to the INAH (Smalls). Although the theories aren’t
one hundred percent correct, homosexuality is shown to formulate a lot from
birth, making it not a choice. While some of the studies show that there are
differences between homosexual males and heterosexual males, there aren’t any,
for the most part. Homo- and heterosexual males’ brains have no true difference
as of right now. There are some cases where homosexual males will have smaller
parts of the brain (INAH-3) than heterosexual males, but there are also some
cases where they are the same size. Both of the males also can have similar
body structure or polar opposite body structure. As stated by Smalls on page
212, “In any case, most homosexuals, both men and women, have perfectly normal
hormones. They have normal genitalia, a normal sex drive, produce sperm and
eggs, and can conceive children. Homosexual men are not men caught in an
estrogen storm, nor are lesbians women who have too much testosterone.” Showing
that homosexual males also don’t differ from heterosexual males in hormonal ways.

4)         When looking
for a potential mate, males and females have completely different standards.
Smalls said on page 178 that males believe that female attractiveness is
extremely important to them, and they usually want a woman is younger than
them. Smalls then continues to talk about how females want a man who has good
financial prospects, as well as a good personality, someone who is emotionally
involved. These perspectives that Smalls bring up make due to their biological
history. Males were supposed to spread their semen as much as they can to carry
on their genes down to further generations, so they look for younger women, who
are more fertile, to have sex with. Females, on the other hand, wants
assistance in raising their children, so they look for men with financial and
emotional security. While men and women both have standards for a full-time
relationship, men will quickly and severely lower their standards for a one
night stand. Once again tracing back to the fact that men biologically want to
spread their sperm around. Women don’t do lower their standards because if they
were to get pregnant off of a one night stand, they wouldn’t have someone that
could assist in taking care of the baby.

5)         I believe
that Smalls makes the dedication because Tim inspired her to write the book. I
think that Meredith and Tim would have conversations about some of the topics
that were mentioned in the book, and neither one of them were well versed in
the area. Smalls even mentions on page 264 that Tim always supported her and
was intrigued in what she was writing. 
Also on page 264, Smalls tell how Tim allowed her to use one of his
private stories in chapter four of the book.