Most the NCC. Binocular rivalry task is the

Most
traditional research into consciousness uses a report-based paradigm i.e.
subject’s reports of perceiving a stimulus as
evidence of consciousness. However, trying to extract information about the
neural correlates of consciousness from such information can be difficult and
has many confounds. The primary issue with this method is that the neural
circuitry used to report an experience will be interpreted as a part of the
neural correlate of consciousness (NCC) (Tsuchiya et al, “No-Report”). This
results in an overestimation of the NCC (Tsuchiya et al, “No-Report”). Additionally, many other
mechanisms work together to allow a subject to report a change in their
perception, including attention, working memory, or expectation (Tsuchiya et
al, “No-Report”). Therefore, some
researchers try to find a way to study consciousness without asking a subject
to report when they are consciously aware of the stimulus. This method of
studying consciousness is called a no-report paradigm. A stumbling block in
using no-report paradigms is how to actually find evidence of conscious
perception without a subject reporting their experience to the researchers.
Tuschiya et al demonstrate that it is possible to use eye movement, pupil size,
memory-based reports, or nonverbal reporting measures as a substitute for
reporting perception of a stimulus. So, such measures will be used to time the
neural response to see when the activity in the brain corresponds to conscious
perception.

            There is scientific evidence that
no-report paradigms probably help in eliminating the overestimation of the NCC.
Binocular rivalry task is the most common type of task used to study
consciousness. When two conflicting stimuli are presented to the two eyes
simultaneously, perception switches every few seconds. Although both images are
seen, only one is consciously perceived at any particular moment in time. A
binocular rivalry task is typically done under a report paradigm where subjects
report every time their perception changes. Compared to a control condition
where no conflicting stimuli are shown, one can find the difference in brain activity
between the two conditions which is likely associated with the switches of
perception. Tushiya et al mention two experiments that show that in binocular
rivalry tasks, using a no-report paradigm results in different areas of the
brain being activated as part of conscious perception. Typically, frontoparietal activation
is seen in report paradigms with binocular rivalry tasks. However, in the
studies under no-report paradigms, frontoparietal activation is not different
between both conditions. Therefore, it is possible that the frontoparietal
activation observed is actually an overestimation of the NCC. Additionally, TMS
and lesions to the frontal lobes did not affect conscious perception.

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