Human been studied from last many years by

Human
Serum Albumin is most plentiful plasma proteins in the circulatory system which
accounts for approximately 60 percent. This protein is from multigene family of
proteins and has molecular weight about 66,000 Dalton   . The half life of protein in humans is
about 3 weeks and it represents blood concentration of 5g/100 ml   . The synthesis of this macromolecular
protein takes place in liver and from there it moves to endoplasmic reticulum
where N- terminal prepropeptide of the protein is detached and the product
obtained moves to Golgi vesicles where it is cleaved to be further secreted
into the blood   . It is a globular,
mono-meric and soluble protein where glycosylation is absent and it is mainly
liable for maintainence of osmotic pressure and regulation of pH and of plasma
  . Various functions of HSA have
extensively been studied from last many years by numerous researchers     .
Binding to variety of drugs is one of the most vital feature of HSA. The
distribution and metabolism of any molecule is determined by it’s binding. It
binds various ligands at multiple binding sites which are located in different
sub domains and it carriers and delivers these ligands at their targets and
affects their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties   . It also transports many different types of
exogenous and endogenous components associating with them in moderate to high
affinity in bound state with albumin through the blood stream. HSA serves as a
carrier and solubilizer for umpteen molecules like fatty acids, amino acids,
bilirubin, hormones, metal ions and metabolites   . HSA is most important Zinc binding protein
in plasma. Metal ions like Copper, Nickel, Cobalt binds with high affinity to
the N- terminal of HSA and some other metal ions like Gold, Silver and Mercury
associates with the thiol group at cysteine located at 34th position
of the amino acid sequence   . This
plasma protein also displays some enzymatic activities and is mainly
responsible for anti- oxidant capacity of plasma either by associating directly
or by binding and transporting radical scavengers   . It underwents glycation and is implemented
to incline circulating plasma volume and thus, declining viscosity of blood. It
plays a critical role in humans by acting as a plasma expander in therapeutic
applications and is also used for stabilizing extracellular fluid volume and as
a protein stabilizer   . HSA also
functions as a depot and detoxification protein and the enolase activity
exhibited by this protein is important in various clinical applications   . The inadequacy of this prominent protein
can be responsible for certain diseases and syndromes like alloalbuminemia and
familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia  
  . This protein is widely
utilized to cure problems like haemorrhage, burns, acute liver failure, blood
loss, trauma, chronic liver diseases, cardiopulmonary, by pass and hypoalbuminemia
  . HSA has served to be an appreciated
biomarker for diseases like cancer, ischemia, post menopausal obesity and
rheumatoid arthritis     . Ligand trapping, fusing proteins
implantable biomaterials and surgical adhesives have been some of the major
biotechnological application of HSA.