Due to use the internet frequently. As the

            Due to the report as of 30 June
2017, the internet users worldwide was 3.58 billion which is higher than
previous year record 3.39 billion. (https://www.statista.com) In the year 2005, only around
1.02 billion use internet and start from 2005, the internet users rate is
constantly growing because it is easier for people to access the computer and
increased mobile phone usage encourage people to use the internet frequently.
As the world becomes highly connected and globalized, it becomes a flattened
world and the information from the north part of the world can be easily
accessed by the southern part of the world. Globalization helps the business
organizations in many ways such as helping the firm to produce goods and
services with extraordinary cost reductions by finding low-cost suppliers from
different countries and managing production facilities in other countries. The
blooming of the Internet into international communication systems helps to
reduce the operating and transacting cost of the business on a global scale.
Therefore, especially the large manufacturing film, the information system
plays a vital role in coordinating the activities within manufacturing
industries which engage in producing and processing the products and automating
many steps in business processes which were produced manually. Corporate firms
also have to deal with different information to organize work activities in
order to operate efficiently and effectively and increase the firm’s performance.
The flow of information can be changed and accessed to many more people and
share information when the new technology is emerged. Nowadays, businesses
highly rely on information systems as they can achieve the strategic business
objectives with the help of information systems. Information systems play an
effective tool in practicing Operational Excellence which is one of the business
objectives. For example, KPI for business processes can be measured and stored
into a database and as a next step, KPI can be value-added as information
system is also an effective tool in creating value for the organization. And
information can change the entire business models, for example, from former
manual business into automated business. Not only to achieve Operational
Excellence, information system helps the managers in decision making process.
Information system support the organizations by combining the raw data to
compile the useful information and documents which helps the managers to get
the real time data of the market or the organization operation process as
managers had to rely only on the forecasts not the actual data in the past.

The final aim of all the business
firms is to minimize the cost, maximize the profit and achieve competitive
advantage. To be able to achieve those, the business firms have to know the
needs of customers and suppliers. Walmart, the
biggest retailer in the world, use the information system effectively. Data
center which has a capacity of 460 terabytes of data, universal
bar code, which allowed the suppliers and retailers to genarate all kinds of
information which
they can tract the inventory and it helps in cost reduction. For tracking
Point-Of-Sale, preparing a payroll and billing a customers, Walmart use TPS
(Transaction Process System) which summarize, record and merge the raw data
into the form of report. This report can be past, present and forecast and can
be used by managers effectively. None of the company except Walmart use the
information system effectively. Therefore, managing the information system is
also essential for the organizations. The organization can learn the diverse
needs through various information system such as decision support system,
modelling system etc. Management information system provides the managers
everything for efficient and faster decision making and productive strategy planning.
Therefore, in order to know the need of not only the internal organization such
as operation processes, human resources but also the external environment such
as the local or international market, businesses are heavily reliant on the
information systems.

            Although
there are a lot of benefits in using information system, there can be also
other unforeseen threats of using information system. Such threads may be
different types of damages and such damages may lead to the financial losses. As
the communication technologies are highly developed and internet are easily
accessible, organizations face to threads such as insecurity of the
information. Big organizations face such system security threads as large
amount of data are stored in a database. Vulnerability varies from some threads
which cause computer system breakdown to some leads to data loss which impacts
company’s image. Not every system is safe and secure. Therefore, nowadays,
system security and control is the first priority to the organizations which
hugely rely on information system.

            There are various types of threads
to attack the system such as virus threats, spyware threats, hackers, malware, phishing
threats, etc. As communication networks are well developed, you can get the
information in different locations through information system. Vulnerabilities
can take place in every layers of the networks such as from client(user) to
corporate systems. Such attack could allow the user to access the data without
authorization, stealing, altering the data and some attack can cause harm to
the computer to temporarily break down. If the computer system breaks down and
doesn’t work properly, the systems malfunction cannot be arranged to fit it in
a designated task. Not only system vulnerabilities but also internet
vulnerabilities is an important factors to tackle. Such internet
vulnerabilities increasily occurs through using e-mail, instant messages and
some file sharing programs. Some may find the attachment in email which is a
kind of malware or unauthorized access to internal corporate system. If
employees open the attachment, they may transmit the company’s financial data
or confidential information to unauthorized recipient and it can cause the
trouble to the company. Malicious software system which includes various
threads such as virus, worms, trojan horses, spyware and hackers can destroy
the data or access the information without authorization and computer crime
such as phishing thread, identity theft, bluesnarfing and social engineering
will steal your personal information and support the fraudsters to escape from
the crime. A kind of software which is linked with other software program,
computer virus performs the malicious action without user’s knowledge. It can
reproduce itself and entering onto other programs or files and causing programs
to run improperly. Virus spread from one computer to another through hard disks
or when users open and copy the infected file using network or file sharing
programs. Another kind of thread software is worm and unlikes viruses, it can
duplicate itself and doesn’t rely on other computer software. The fact that
worm is worse than virus is that it destroys and all the data and programs. Moreover, as most of the instant messaging applications
do not use any security system in an application, the outsiders can track or
read the important messages while the users use the internet. Not only through instant 
message but also through peer-to-peer (P2P) network, outsider can get
the confidential information. Free wireless network at airport or public
location is not completely safe either as outsiders can easily hack using
laptops, wireless cards and hacking software. Outsiders will try to access the
passwords or credit card numbers of the users who log on to the network which
is pretended to offer trustworthy Wi-Fi connections.

Denial-of-Service Attack known as
“DOS” Attack is the software which forces the network server, website or a
service to stop running. Unlikes virus or worms threat, DOS attack doesn’t
destroy the data of the organization, however, it makes the websites of the
companies or services shut down by flooding network with lots of traffic and
requests and it causes the network crash. The example of DOS attack would be
against BBC websites on December 31, 2015. A group named New World
hacking knock the BBC websites and its iplayer streaming service down for
several hours and make many users complaint as the website are unavailable due
to the attack. Although DOS attack doesn’t steal or remove the data or other
assets, it makes the organization to spend money and time to recover the
website. Another computer crime is identity theft which the
fraudsters try to obtain the personal informations and pretend to be someone else.
Among the victims,
Bill Gates, Steven Speilberg and Oprah Winfrey are the well-known people who
have experienced identity theft. Somehow, there is an internal
threads in an organization which is the employee. Employees who have limited
knowledge of technology face the problem of not recognizing the virus. Some
employees allowed others to know their computers passwords and use them. Therefore,
employee’s lack of common knowledge also lead to insecurity. And some
employess surf the internet for personal use- may be watching the youtube video
or playing game. And malicious software come to attack by pretending they are
from the members of the company. When employees enter into a trap, those
intruders can track all of the information of the company such as finaicial
data or confidential important which is very important to the organization.
Therefore, it is important to give the employees the proper knowledge about
technology.

            The most common cyber attacks in
most of the organizations is ransomware attacks, a kind of cyber kidnapping. Ransomware
is a malicious software which take over your computer and encrypted the data or
information so that the owners couldn’t access to their data. If the
organization paid the ransomware during their time limit, hackers transfer the
key to decrypt the files. In order to get the access to the computer of the
targeted victim, ransomware use some delivery system and it can be more than
one. Most common delivery systems are phishing emails, social engineering
schemes, malvertising networks or watering hole attacks. With ransomware,
hackers harm the computer, steal the data inside it and demand the money from
the actual owners. Therefore, ransomware becomes one of the fastest growing
cyber threads used by hackers to take out the profit from victims. You may lost
all the confidential and important information in your computer if it has been
attacked by ransomware. Nowadays most of the organizations face this common
cyber thread and not only lost billions of money but also have to spend so much
time to get systems back. Moreover, ransomware can be very harmful to
organization’s productivity because all the production process had to on hold
until the important data is recovered and the system is secured.

            Although organizations are trying to
prevent the ransomware attacks, hackers keep trying to find ways to advance the
ransomware system and the system is continuously advanced. In 2017, the
advanced ransomware system makes the organizations around the world shock as it
can hit businesses in more than 100 countries within 48 hours and is recorded
as biggest attack among ransomware attacks. That ransomware is wanna decryptor
2.0 known as WannaCry or wcry. WannaCry 2.0 is a specific ransomware system
which block all the data access and leaves the users only with the instructions
of what to do next and WannaCry program information. When the users open the
software, they are informed that all the data are encrypted and are asked for
payment in Bitcoin. If the users don’t know how to buy Bitcoin, the software
will provide you the information to buy and bitcoin address to send to.

According to 2016 ransomware report
which surveyed in four countries such as United Kingdom, the United States,
Canada and Germany, 40% of business organizations were attacked by ransomware,
30% of business lost the revenue and 20% of victims have to stop the business
immediately which cause thousands of employees lost their jobs. Therefore,
cyber attacks can also indirectly increase the unemployed rate. As the victims
couldn’t know they are attacked until the hackers take over the computers and block
access to all the data files, some businesses don’t get enough time for
prevention and according to research, nearly 19% of the organizations had to
stop the business immediately. As nearly 60% of the ransomware attacks on
business demanded over $1000 and over 20% of attacks claimed over $10,000, some
small business cost lot of money to recover their data and their loss is bigger
than the large organization because large companies can use sophisticated
systems and those system can be able to sense this attack and minimize the
damage. However, paying the ransomware can’t guarantee that all of the data can
be retained safely because fraudsters are not someone who are trustworthy
people. But if the company doesn’t pay till deadline they give, all the
encryption and decryption keys will not be transferred and that means all the
data will be lost.

 

 

As the network system is well
developed in most of the countries, such malware attacks are often occurred
anywhere in the world. Most countries which is attacked mostly include United
Kingdom, the United States, Russia, China, Germany, India, South Korea, etc and
those attacks can negatively impact the country and organizations. That’s why
countries and organizations are more emphasized on preparations for cyber attack
nowadays. However, the question is how we will protect the sudden ransomware
attack. Malware attackers are fully aware of the basic traditional ways the
organization use to avoid the thread and therefore, they are continuously
developing the ransomware system until the system are advanced. It makes the
society to increase the awareness of the cyber security and learn more basic
knowledges about technology in order to minimize the chance of leaking out the
information which negatively impact on organizations. Organization must protect
the security of not only their own information but also shareholders, business
partners, customers and employees as well. If they fail to protect them, it
could create harm to the organization and organization will have to handle the
risk.

 As their main target is the confidential or
important information of organizations or individuals, the organization or
individual should back up their information first. If there is back up
information, even if the ransomware attack and the company data is lost, there
is not much damages in organization. However, especially for the large
organizations which retain thousands of information, sophisticated security
system is always needed as connecting to the internet would be dangerous if
there is no medium which protects malware and intruders. Firewalls, intrusion
detection system, antivirus and antispyware software are essential tools for
business to protect fraud, computer crime and various malicious software.

Firewalls

Malicious software such as virus
and worms steal and remove the data while firewalls don’t allow the
unauthorized users accessing from other computers. Firewalls is well known as
the protection tool which protect the private network from public one. Firewalls
ban all the unauthorized between internal and external world. The outer barrier
of firewalls blocks all the entries except those destined for service and the
inner barrier of firewalls cut off all outgoing traffic. It helps the
organization to minimize the various attack systems.

Intrusion
Detection System

            Intrusion Detection System is the
software application which check and record the network and find if any
suspicious process occurs. Intrusion Detection System monitors full-time and
give an alert if it detects a malicious process. IDS also featured the tool
which can cut off a specific part of a network if it is entered through
unauthorized access.

Antivirus
and Antispyware Software

            One of the basic method of defensing
the malware attack is installing antivirus and antispyware software in every
computer in the business. Antivirus software detects and erase the malware such
as virus, worms, spyware, Trojan horses and other programs which are designed
to damage a system. However, new kind of viruses are found out everyday and
antivirus software need to be updated regularly. Antispyware protects from
leaking out the information to the third party without the owner’s knowledge.
Especially the organizations should have both antivirus and antispyware
software.

 

5.
As an employee of a highly connected and globalized world, highlight and
discuss critically those ethical issues that may arise from using connected
devices in organization.

            Information technology is constantly
improving and internet and various information systems help the individual and
organizations to be able to access the information of one another in a short
time. Although organizations may gain benefit from information system as the
data they get from information system largely support in decision-making
process, on the other side, it increases the ethical issues.