ABSTRACT: proper distribution of water, irregular water supply,

ABSTRACT:
Water plays an important role in day to
day life of all human beings. In fact it is the most precious and valuable
resource of life. Due to increased urbanization water supply department facing
many problems in real time operation such as proper distribution of water, irregular
water supply, leakages in pipelines, quality of water, etc. Leakage from water
supply is posing a serious problem for the water supply industry that has to
supply water to the buildings, houses, etc. Water pipes are usually buried
underground and it is not rare that a pipe is used for long period (more than
forty years). So detection of leakages of water is necessary in every aspect.
Also the leakage detection and location of water pipes which is one of the main
concerns in the water management department. Various techniques have been
developed to detect the location and size of leakages previously .This paper,
presents the recent approaches for water leakage detection and summarize the
features of some methods.

 

Keywords: water leakage,
leakage detection, water management.

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1.     
INTRODUCTION

 

A leakage is
nothing but any physical damage or hole which is of any irregular size, and can
occur at anytime, anywhere in the pipeline of the supply of the water. The
problem of water leakage detection gained much importance in this era because
it just not cause environmental issues but economic too.

Pipeline systems
make a vital role for transporting materials such as water, oil and gas. Any
leakage in the pipe can cause major financial losses and possible environmental
damages. Currently, buried pipelines are only monitored at key points, which
can be spaced several kilometers apart. A system with a higher spatial
resolution would provide operators with a better understanding of their
network. Most of the water pipes are buried underground, making it difficult to
find the location of leaks. For this reason, water leakage has usually been
detected when water flows out of the ground due to massive leaks in pipes. For
this reason here present the theoretical approach for water leakage and
detection in the paper.

 

2.     
LITERATURE
REVIEW

 

Ms T. Deepiga
et. al. 1 define the water monitoring systems such as Tank water level
sensing monitoring, water pollution monitoring and water pipeline leakage
sensing monitoring. By using Wireless Sensor Technology they avoids the huge
amount of water is being wasted by uncontrolled use of large
apartments/offices. The microcontroller (PID) based Water level monitoring is
used to indicate the level of water in the tank to agent. Sensor Based Water
Pollution Detection, it will check the water quality by using these parameters
such as the pH level, turbidity and temperature are measured in real time by
the sensors and it will monitoring by an agent. For Leak detection in water
pipelines, they use the pressure into the pipe using on force sensitive
resistors (FSR) generated from a leak is detected, it will be indicated by an
increase in the LED meter and a rushing sound will be heard in the headset.

 

FUKUSHIMA Kei
et. al. 2 present the demonstration of water leakage detection in the period
from September 2013 to March 2014, author made a demonstrative test on actual
water pipes jointly with KASIX Corporation, local information processing
company, and under collaboration from the Gas and Water Supply Bureau of the City
of Kashiwazaki (Niigata Prefecture). As a result of assessment using about
twenty sensor loggers under various test conditions, succeeded in detecting
four water leak cases with position errors of less than 1 meter.

 

Cho Zin Myint
et. al. 3 presents a reconfigurable smart sensor interface device for water
quality monitoring system in an IoT environment. The smart WQM system consists
of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) design board, sensors, Zigbee based
wireless communication module and personal computer (PC). The FPGA board is the
core component of the proposed system and it is programmed in very high speed
integrated circuit hardware description language

(VHDL) and C programming
language using Quartus II software and Qsys tool. The proposed WQM system
collects the five parameters of water data such as water pH, water level, turbidity,
carbon dioxide (CO2) on the surface of water and water temperature in parallel
and in real time basis with high speed from multiple different sensor nodes.

 

Athanasios
Anastasopoulos et. al. 4 deals with the technical description and the physics
of the AE leak detection technique, presents the advantages, limitations and
requirements of the method, describes the necessary functions of AE equipment
for performing such a task, and, finally, reports on several case-studies of
successful leak detection and location of buried pipelines. The case studies
cover both new and in-service buried pipelines of different sizes.

 

Dídia Covas et.
al. 5 uses the methodology is the identification of leaks location in pipe
networks using observed pressure data, collected during the occurrence of
transient events, and the minimization of the difference between observed and
calculated parameters. This approach is presented conceptually and implemented
in a software tool. The methodology is tested and verified with laboratory data
collected in an experimental facility at Institute Superior Technical
(Technical University of Lisbon). Based on this preliminary data analysis, the
main practical difficulties of the implementation of this methodology in field
network systems are outlined.

 

N. Merzi et. al.
6 present a methodology to estimate, to determine and to locate water losses
from water distribution networks is presented. Various techniques are used to
reduce the losses by employing limited manpower and simple instruments.
Alternatives requiring sophisticated equipments are also introduced. Related
case studies from Ankara Municipal Water Distribution Network are presented.

 

 

 

 

3.     
COMPARATIVE
ANALYSIS

 

Sr. No

Author’s

Paper Title

Published

Method or
techniques used

Work done

1

Ms T. Deepiga,
Ms A. Sivasankari

Smart Water
Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor Network at Home/Office

International
Research Journal of Engineering and Technology

Wireless
Sensor Technology, force sensitive resistors (FSR), microcontroller

1 In this
paper, define the water monitoring systems such as Tank water level sensing
monitoring, water pollution monitoring and water pipeline leakage sensing
monitoring.
2 use the
pressure into the pipe using on force sensitive resistors (FSR) generated
from a leak is detected, it will be indicated by an increase in the LED meter
and a rushing sound will be heard in the headset.

 
 
2

FUKUSHIMA Kei,
MARUTA Yuuji, IZUMI Kazuo, ITO Yusuke, YOSHIZAWA Ayumi, TANAKA Toshiaki

A Water Leak
Detection Service Based on Sensors and ICT Solutions

Special Issue
on Solutions for Society – Creating a Safer and More Secure Society

NEC Water
Cloud, sensor logger, Relay

1 The NEC
Water Cloud is composed of the Water Leak Analysis Engine, which combines the
unique expertise of Gutermann and the Water Leak Service Application that
implements the NEC-original analyses and services based on the results
obtained with the Leak Analysis Engine.
2 Displaying
the locations and the statuses of the sensor loggers on Google Maps.
3 Alarms for
various leak situations.
4 Daily score
logging of abnormal points, searches based on various conditions.
5 Compilation
of leak reports.
6 Traceability
of leak generation points.

3

Cho Zin Myint,
Lenin Gopal, and Yan Lin Aung

Reconfigurable
Smart Water Quality Monitoring System in IoT Environment

IEEE, ICIS 2017

Field
Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) design board, sensors, Zigbee based wireless
communication
Module

1 Collects
the five parameters of water data such as water pH, water level, turbidity,
carbon dioxide (CO2) on the surface of water and water temperature in
parallel and in real time basis with high speed from multiple different
sensor nodes.

4

Dídia Covas
and Helena Ramos,

Hydraulic
Transients used for Leakage Detection in Water
Distribution
Systems

Water Pipeline
Systems, BHR Group

inverse
transient analysis

1 This
methodology is based on pressure data collection during the occurrence of
transient events and the minimization of the difference between observed data
and calculated pressures (or flows).
 

5

Jihoon Choi,
Joonho Shin, Choonggeun Song, Suyong Han and Doo Il Park

Leak Detection
and Location ofWater Pipes Using Vibration Sensors and Modified ML Prefilter

Sensors, 2017.
 
 

vibration
sensors, cross-correlation techniques, modified
maximum-likelihood
(ML)

1 Construct a
channel model for vibration signals in buried water pipes based on the field
measurement data.
2 The
proposed leak detection method was verified by field measurements using a
practical leak detection system.
3 The
proposed modified ML prefilter can be applied to correlation-based leak
detection systems utilizing the STFT and the wavelet transform.
4 proposed
method can contribute to developing an automatic leakage management solution
that collects leakage data, alarms about the risk of leaks, and informs about
the specific leak locations.

 

4.     
CONCLUSION

 

Water is one of
the most important basic needs for all living beings. And water leakage
detection is becoming severe issue as it affects on various parameters of day
to day life such as environmental and economic conditions of life. This paper
presents the comparative / theoretical approaches  for water leakage detection.

 

5.     
REFERENCES

 

1
 
 
 
2
 
 
 
 
3
 
 
4
 
 
5
 
 
6
 
 
 
7
 
 
 
8
 
 

 Ms T. Deepiga, Ms A. Sivasankari,
“Smart Water Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor Network at
Home/Office”, International Research Journal of Engineering and
Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056, Volume: 02 Issue: 04, July-2015.
 
FUKUSHIMA
Kei, MARUTA Yuuji, IZUMI Kazuo, ITO Yusuke, YOSHIZAWA Ayumi, TANAKA Toshiaki,
“A Water Leak Detection Service Based on Sensors and ICT
Solutions”, Special Issue on Solutions for Society – Creating a Safer
and More Secure Society, NEC Technical Journal, Vol.9 No.1.
 
Cho
Zin Myint, Lenin Gopal, and Yan Lin Aung, “Reconfigurable Smart Water
Quality Monitoring System in IoT Environment”, IEEE, ICIS 2017, May
24-26, 2017.
 
Athanasios
Anastasopoulos, Dimitrios Kourousis And Konstantinos Bollas, “Acoustic
Emission Leak Detection Of Liquid Filled Buried Pipeline”.
 
 Dídia Covas and Helena Ramos,
“Hydraulic Transients used for Leakage Detection in Water Distribution
Systems”, Water Pipeline Systems, BHR Group 2001.
 
Ali
M. Sadeghioon , Nicole Metje , David N. Chapman and Carl J. Anthony,
“SmartPipes: Smart Wireless Sensor Networks for Leak Detection in Water
Pipelines”, Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, ISSN 2224-2708,
2014.
 
N.
Merzi and T. Özkan, “Water Leakage And Detection In Municipal Water
Distribution Networks”, Water Supply and Drainage for Buildings, 29th
Int. Symposium, Turkey.
 
Jihoon
Choi, Joonho Shin, Choonggeun Song, Suyong Han and Doo Il Park, “Leak     Detection and Location of Water Pipes
Using Vibration Sensors and Modified ML Prefilter”, sensors, 2017.