4.. of the fluid,, the less the temperature

4..

Discussion

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Table 1 shows the data for the tubular heat exchanger.. The characteristics of co

flow and counter

flow
can be seen.. Clausius Statement states that in co

flow the exit temperature for the hot fluid is higher
than the exit of the cold fluid,, which basically
means that heat is naturally transferred from cold to hot.. In
counter

flow,, the exit temperature of the hot fluid must be more than the entrance temperature of the
cold fluid,,
our data supports this theory..

The tables show different temperature with diffe
rent flow rates such as 1((LL//mmin and 2 (LL//mmin)).. The heat
exchangers work by removing the energy from the hot fluid and is added to the cold fluid,, First law of
thermodynamics suggests that the higher the flow rate of the fluid,, the less the temperature chan
ge
meaning the slower the flow rate,, the more change in temperature for the fluid..

The temperature difference is a constant,, for example,, the rise in temperature of the hot fluid will also
affect a rise in the cold fluid.. This is governed by the first law
of thermodynamics and in our case the
energy is transferred from the hot fluid to the cold fluid with constant mass flow,, meaning the ratio
between the temperature differences do not occur although the value of the numbers of the temperature
might change..

The data suggests that effectiveness of the heat exchanger is related to the cold

water flow rate and
this is because it has less thermal resistance and the calculations for overall effectiveness shows that
counter

flow has better effects of heat transfer
compared to co

flow.. The data from the experiment
supports this..

Figure 10 and 11

show how the temperature was recorded every 10 seconds until it was steady to take
readings..

The experiment was prone to errors such as systematic and random,, errors such as

heater
over heating the fluid more than the required temperature and energy could of have been lost due to
convection and not properly insulated..

The

heat transfer in heat exchangers can be improved via
increasing the velocity which will
result in a
higher heat transfer
.
fouling factors

should still be considered and the heat
exchangers should be cleaned

periodically which will less the conservative fouling factors..

5..

Conclusion

The purpose of the experiment was achieved;; heat exchangers follow the basic laws of
thermodynamics;; this is shown throughout the experiment.. Starting with co

flow configuration,, the exit
temperature of the cold liquid is hotter than the exit temperature
of the cold liquid,, which supports the
theory of clausius and it is clear that conservation of energy applies to heat exchangers.. The data for
the experiments show that configuration has a big effect on the heat transfer such as counter

flow has a
higher
effectiveness then co

flow.. The flow rate also has an effect and finally,, the amount of heat which
was gained by the cold water is not equal to the amount which was lost by the hot water.. This can be
due to a number of reasons but the main one would be hea
t lost to the surrounding..