3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter contains the
research methodology for the present study. It explains the research objectives
and also shows a suitable methodology to achieve those objectives. Research
Methodology is a way of solving research problem in systematical manner. It
shows the steps involved in organizing the research, but also given explanation
for selection of various methods, it gives the limitations of research and also
given finding, conclusion & suggestion of the research. In fact, research
is an art of scientific investigation. The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of
Current English lays down the meaning of research as “A careful investigation
or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.”
Research is according to some authors as a “systematized effort to gain new
knowledge” (Redman and Mory). Definition of research “Research comprises
defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested
solutions; collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and
reach conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine
whether they fit the formulating hypothesis” (Clifford Woody).”Research
Methodology is the pursuit of truth with help of study, observations,
comparison and experiment” (Dr. C. Rajinder Kumar). Research Methodology is “answering
unanswered questions or exploring which currently not exist is a research”
(Goddard & Melville). Another definition of
research is given that – “Research is a process of steps used to collect and
analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It
consists of three steps: Pose a question, collect data to answer the question,
and present an answer to the question (Creswell). A broad definition of
research is “In the broadest sense of the word, the definition of research
includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge”
(Martyn Shuttleworth). As such the term ‘research’ refers to the
systematic methodconsisting of enunciating the problem, formulating a
hypothesis, collecting the facts or data, analysing the facts and reaching
certain conclusions either in the form of solutions(s) towards the concerned
problem or in certain generalisations for some theoretical formulation (Kothari,
consists of series of actions or steps necessary to effectively carry out
research and the desired sequencing of these steps.
gaps are being identified through review of literature
topic is being identified in the broad area of management.
the broad area, the specific problem is identified.
Need of Research
The Demonetization of 500 and 1000 banknotes by Government
of India as on 8 Nov. 2016. The whole Economy of the country has changed and
it’s heading towards cashless/digital banking from physical transactions. To
make successful in this event of demonetization, Digital Banking is must and
banks has to play an important role in it. In cashless banking the banks have
to improve their Customer Relation Management system (CRM). It means in-depth
Knowledge of the requirements of their customers in order to make long lasting
Relationship. In Promoting Digital Banking, Banks has to make their services
simple, convenient, safer and always available whenever customers required or
in other words 24 hour banking in Tri City (Chandigarh, Panchkula &
Scope of Research
Most of the Population in Tri City is literate and they have
also holding their bank accounts in different banks of Tri City (Chandigarh,
Panchkula & Mohali) like State Bank of India, Bank of Baroda, ICICI Bank,
HDFC Bank, YES bank, CITI Bank, KOTAK Bank, Canara Bank, Central Bank, Punjab
National Bank and Axis Bank. Even then most of the customers of Tri City are
tech savvy as they are using smart phones. Due to technology innovation there
is the possibility to convert the Tri City into cashless economy. Government is
still facing challenges in implementing it effectively. The aim of study is to
identify the various barriers in digital retail banking. If the barriers are
identified & resolved, then the efficiency in the working of bank employees
are increased by the help of digitization.
Objectives of the Study
1. To identify various barriers in Digital Retail Banking in
Tri City (Chandigarh, Panchkula & Mohali).
2. To examine the various practices being followed to
improve the structure of supply chain Management of Retail Banking.
3. To examine Customer
relationship management (CRM) practices being followed by Banks to
analyze the satisfaction level of customer of Chandigarh.
4. To examine the level of change in efficiency after
Digitization in Retail Banking.
5. To give recommendations on further necessary improvements
in digital mechanism in retail banking.
The pilot study formed the pedestal for the study. It was
conducted on 30 respondents from the different banks as perspective. The survey
was conducted in Tri City (Chandigarh, Mohali & Panchkula). There was a
positive response from the pilot study. Based on the findings of the pilot
study, the survey instrument was being designed.
The research design is the blueprint that helps in the
achievement of objectives and helps in finding the answers to a particular
research problem. It is the process of collecting, organizing, evaluating and
measuring data along with the analysis of the same using various tools like
experiments, simulation or a combination of tools. It is an outline that gives
the investigator a plan from formulating the hypothesis till that it is
carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating
hypothesis. It is a framework which develops a relationship among multiple
variables of the study from research problem till the data research.
The exploratory and descriptive research design was adopted
due to the nature of the study. Exploratory research provides to
gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into for the comprehension
of an issue or situation. Exploratory research is a type of research conducted
because a problem has not been clearly defined.
While descriptive research, describes data and
characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. This field of
study is complex and it requires proficient skills of research so that it can
be designed and executed effectively. In this study, questions are being
investigated and the solutions to those questions are being drawn through
Quantitative research is a process of number crunching,
where we quantify something. It is where the data is being collected,
organized, measured and analysed in a numeric form. When the size of
respondents is huge data is being processed or analysed by using statistical
tools like Factor Analysis, Anova and Correlation or any other suitable
techniques will be used. Various software tools like SAS, SPSS, Excel Stat,
etc. will be used for analysis and representation of research data. The
quantitative study is being obtained through testing of hypothesis where the relationship
between two variables is being tested and the analysis is being done using
various statistical techniques.
The main focus of qualitative research is to extract the
central point on what previous researchers state about a specific topic. It
describes views of various authors and is being interpreted to suit the problem
of the study. This type of research is not being quantified numerically and is
generally done through open ended questions and face to face interviews which
is usually qualitative in nature.
Data collection is the systematic gathering of information
trough data for a particular purpose from various sources including
questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, electronic devices
published & unpublished recourses, journals, annual report.
Data collection methods
There are various methods are used in collection of data for
various questions from varied fields of study. The present study is mainly
based on primary data and Secondary data.
Primary Data: Primary data will be
collected from the Bank Managers of the Tri City (Chandigarh, Panchkula &
Mohali) through personal interview or with the help of structured questionnaire.
Secondary Data: Secondary Data will be collected from various sources as different
published & unpublished recourses, web sites, books, journals, annual
report and published research works.
A sample design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample
from a given population (Kothari, 1988). Sample constitutes a certain portion
of the population or universe. Sampling design refers to the technique or the
procedure the researcher adopts for selecting items for the sample from the
population or universe. A sample design helps to decide the number of items to
be included in the sample, i.e., the size of the sample. The sample design
should be determined prior to data collection. There are different kinds of
sample designs which a researcher can choose. Some of them are relatively more
precise and easier to adopt than the others. A researcher should prepare or
select a sample design, which must be reliable and suitable for the research
study proposed to be undertaken.
Universe: The population for the research
study is Tri City (Chandigarh, Panchkula & Mohali).
Sample Technique: The technique used to
collect the sample is stratified random sampling. It is a random sampling
technique where the entire population is divided into smaller groups for the
purpose of collecting data. In case of choosing the sampling method the first
priority is stratified random sampling method. As a list of Mangers of
different Banks is not known, the purposive sampling method will be best for
Sample Size: The sample size
considered for the study is 200 respondents from different banks.
Sampling Frame: Respondents are the Bank
Managers of the Tri City (Chandigarh, Panchkula & Mohali) and Banks are
selected on the basis of their market share, Number of customer base and use of
Tools for Analysis: The tools that have been
used for the analysis of the primary data are Factor Analysis, Anova, T-test,
cumulative frequency distribution and multiple Regression with Chi-square.
Data Analysis Procedure: Various software tools
like Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) and MS-EXCEL is being used
for statistical analysis. Certain statistical measures were applied on used for
analysis the data to get the desired results.
Formulation of Hypothesis
Hypothesis will be formulated on the basis of the
questionnaire pertaining to the objectives of the study during the formation of
Ho: There is no significance difference between the factors
and efficiency levels of banks after digitization.
H1: CRM is highly significant for Banks following CRM
practices to improve the structure of supply chain management and level of
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