2.1 poverty. Extreme poverty is known as destitution

2.1 Introduction

 

Poverty is a worldwide issue. All the nations around the globe face the issue of poverty, yet there are a few nations which are poorer than others like the developing nations in Africa, Asia and Latin America. The poorest person in a developed country may be better off than an average citizen of many developing countries. The defination of poverty differs in different regions around  the globe. As indicated by the United Nations’ Human Development Report 1996, the average per capita income of the poorest one-fifth of Americans was $5,814 per year in 1993.While in Tanzania, average per capita income was 580$ per year which is ten time less than that of the Americans . By Tanzanian measures, Americans in that last 20 percent may appear to be weel off and fortunate. But by U.S. standards, they are definitely not.  There are two types of poverty, extreme poverty  or absolute poverty and relative poverty.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

 

Extreme poverty is known as destitution and it could be harmful to individuals’ wellbeing and life. In the United States, absolute poverty is customarily characterized as having a yearly income that is not as much as half of the official poverty line (income level determined by the Bureau of the Census). Absolute poverty in developing countries, as characterized by international organizations, like The World Bank, implies having a family income of less than  US $ 1.25 a day in 2005. Relative poverty is the state of having less assets or less income  than other people of the country or compared to worldwide averages. Poverty is socially characterized and dependent to context, it is a measure of income imbalance. The reasons behind poverty are not clear. some people believe that poverty results  because of  lack of sufficient resources which are satisfactory  on world level-assets, for example, land, food, and shelter-that are vital for the survival of people.While others define poverty as unequal destribution of resources around the globe . As indicated by this second line of reasoning, it gives an idea oer indicates the disparity between the two universes, one where a few people have more than they need and the other where people don’t have enough to survive such that they lack the basic needs.

 

There has been significant considerable interest in recent  years in the ability of non-governmental organizations to work with the poor so as to enhance their quality of life  and economic status through the provision of credit, skills training, and other inputs for income generating  programs. The term “non-governmental organization” can be extensively seen as being made out of a wide assortment of associations differently known as “private voluntary organizations”, “civil society associations” and “non-profit organizations” (McGann and Johnstone,2006). In the cases in where NGOs are totally or partially supported by governments, the NGO keeps up its non-governmental status by excluding Government representatives from membership in the organization. Defining the term NGOs is ambigous as they are confusing, opposing, and sometimes overlapping in defining the terms. The NGOs sector is extremely diverse as these organizations have altogether different structures, objectives and inspirations. NGOs are for the most part made out of non-profit,voluntary citizens, groups which are organized on a local, national or global level and they have certain interests, causes, or objectives.

 

NGOs work in a wide range of fields, yet the term is for the most part connected with those looking for social transformation and improvements of quality in life. There are numerous NGOs, who are affiliated with international aid and different donors, but NGOs happens not to funds and they try to generate their own, such as selling handicrafts or charging for services. . In the current decades, NGOs have moved from backstage to the all important focal point in reshaping the universe of governmental issues, and are applying their energy and impact in each part of global relations and policymaking. NGOs positively affect local and international issues, for example poverty alleviation, conservation of human rights, preserving the environment, and providing worldwide relief. The development of NGOs has been excessively a vast degree fuelled by the failure of both household and worldwide organizations to react sufficiently to major monetary, social and political changes which have been occurring at a quick pace . The quantity of universal non-administrative associations (INGOs) alone rose from 6,000 in 1990 to reach 26,000 in 1996 (The Economist, 1999), and 37,000 in 2002 (UNDP, 2002). Figures for NGOs working at national level are considerably higher: Russia, for example is evaluated to have somewhere in the range of 277,000 NGOs and India between 1 million and 2 million NGOs (Chicago Tribune, 2007). In 2006, it was assessed that there were nearly 1.5 million NGOs in the USA alone (McGann and Johnstone, 2006).

 

2.2 Evolution and Growth of NGOs

 

INGOs have been  dating back to atleast 1839. In 1914 there were 1083 NGOs (UN 2007) In any case, the expression “non-governmental organization” just came into prominent use with the foundation of the United Nations Organization in 1945 with provisions in Article 71 of Chapter 10 of the United nations.Globalization occuring during the twentieth century offered significance to the ascent of NGOs all around and in particular in developing countries. International treaties and International organizations , for example, the World Trade Organization fixated their interests generally on industrialist endeavors. While trying to balance the interests of these International treaties and International organizations , NGOs were created to underscore philanthropic issues, developmental aid and sustainable development.

 

In spite of the fact that the term NGO wound up noticeably known to the world in the year 1839 the voluntary sector around the world is much older than this. In England voluntary work advanced back in the medieval time where poor people were being taken care of by the monastery. The needy individuals and the poor people were taken care by the religious communities and chapels. It resembled this that in England there was the presentation of the Poor Law and later it turned into the Welfare States. Be that as it may, in the first place everything began as willful work as the ministers were not paid to help poor people. Voluntary work has dependably been available, particularly among the religious organizations, giving sustenance or cash was normal. NGOs in its customary shape have been working in various religious trust-based schools, hospitals and orphanages. In India NGOs first come to notice in 1980s however voluntary work began after the British left1947. In autonomous India, voluntary organizations began by Gandhi and his followers were to fill in the holes left by the administration in the development process. In the 1980s, in any case, the groups who are currently known as NGOs turned out to be more particular, and the voluntary movement was divided into various groups.

 

2.4 Causes of Poverty

 

Poverty resembles an endless loop. As the rich gets richer because he is living a rich life and the poor gets poorer because he is living in poverty. Poverty has numerous causes and some of them are very basic. A few experts suggest that poverty is caused due to lack of sufficient employment opportunities and lack of sufficient food . The basic factors that may result in poverty  are: insufficient  education and employment opportunities, overpopulation, inability to meet standard of living and cost of living,certain economic and demographic drifts, the unequal distribution of assets in the worldwide economy, welfare incentives and environmental degradation.

 

2.4.1 Overpopulation

 

Overpopulation is the condition when there are huge number of people and they have few resources and too little space. This overpopulation can come about because of high population density, which is the quantity of individuals to land suface, generally appeared as quantities of individuals per square kilometer or square mile, or there are low measures of assets, or from both. High populace densities put weight on assets that are accessible. Just a specific measure of individuals can be bolstered on a given surface of land, and that number relies upon how much sustenance and different assets the zone can give. In nations where individuals live by essential methods for basic farming, gardening ,herding ,hunting and gathering, even where there are bigger land surfaces the production of food  is still low given the quantity of individuals are little is because of the production means. The production means is not efficient and large enough to feed a large number of people or to produce large quantity of food.

 

2.4.2 High Standards of Living and Costs of Living

 

Individuals in developed nations by and large enjoy a higher standard of living because these countries have tons of resources and money as compared to the developing countries. Individuals who may have necessary assets and riches in a developing country may be considered as poor in a developed country and vice versa. For instance individuals in America, on average, expect to make, about $30,000 every year. They may likewise hope to lease a house or a condo with power offices and water supply, to ready to purchase sustenance to eat and garments, and get medicinal services arrangement. Furthermore, a considerable lot of these individuals would like to manage the cost of different costs, for example, the buys material not requirement for survival, for example, autos, amusement and expensive nourishment. In correlation, individuals in most developing nations ordinarily may view themselves as fortunate on  that they have productive agriculture, some dairy cattle, and a house made out of mud-blocks. In the rustic regions, individuals can be utilized to not having water facilities, power, or hospitals.

 

Developed countries have a tendency to have a high average cost for basic items, even the most basic way of life with few or no extravagances; can be generally costly when contrasted with developing countries. The vast majority in the United States, Canada, Japan, Australia, western European countries, and other developed countries can’t acquire sufficient food, garments, and shelter without ample amounts of cash. In few regions, even individuals with occupations that give them the minimum wage as permitted by law will be unable to cover their fundamental costs. Individuals who can’t find well-paying jobs frequently have no extra wage for crisis costs, and numerous depend on state welfare to survive.

 

 

2.4.3 Inadequate Education and Employment

 

Illiteracy and lack of education are common in developing countries. Frequently the government of developing countries can’t afford to cater for basic education , particularly those living in rural areas. Though in developed countries almost all youngsters have excess to basic education, in sub-Saharan Africa just around 60% kids go to school for elementary educatiion. Without education, most people in the developing countries fail to find work which would satisfy their basic needs. Poor people often don’t go to school as most of them start earning at a little age and their situation and conditions force them to work to earn some living as they are living a poor life. Moreover, it is seen that the developing countries offer less employment opportunities as compared to the developed countries, especially for women .

 

Sometimes in developed countries, joblessness may be high. At the point when individuals don’t work, they can’t gain a living; in this manner, high rate of poverty is an aftermath of high unemployment rate. The amount of employment opportunities available also vary; making high unemployment periods. Since unemployment figures demonstrate just the quantity of individuals qualified to work who have no activity yet are looking for business, such figures are not really an exact pointer of the quantity of individuals living in poverty.

 

2.4.4 Economic and Demographic Trends

 

Economic trnds can once in a while be connected with poverty in numerous developed nations. In the year 1960s, for instance, in the United States many people encountered a development in their income because of economic boom. The normal income of a family was multiplied in that period even with inflation. Notwithstanding, there was a rise in the standard of living considering inflation, between the years 1970s and the years 1990s. Youngsters and less-educated ones are more influenced when there are times of economic recessions as find it difficult to get a job and earn a living.

 

Poverty levels have likewise been expanded with changes in labor markets in developed countries. In many developed countries the number of poor people has increased due to unequal distribution of resources. For instance, since the 1970s, the 20 percent poorest of all U.S. family units have earned an increasingly smaller level of the total national income while the wealthiest 5 percent of families have earned an increasingly greater percentage. Amid for the most part of this period, because of an expansion in the average cost for basic items the middle and those who are at the bottom of the distribution line have worsened.

2.4.5 Individual Responsibility and Welfare Dependency

Dependency:

Different people have different opinions as far as the individual responsibilities are concerned regarding poverty. Some believe that there is always a general portion of the public who remain needy no matter what happens to the structure of the society. While some different imagines that because of a few dysfunctions of some social organizations, for example, the labor force, poverty would be pertaining. As per this school of thought poverty is not in the control of the general population who are in it, yet this issue can be helped if legitimate strategies are executed which means if proper policies are implemented. There are other individuals who feel that the destitute individuals tend to remain in poverty purposefully. For instance, there are individuals who take drugs willfully driving them to remain in poverty these individuals can only blame themselves for their situation.

 

Additionally there are the individuals who believe that numerous individuals in developed countries tend to blame the cycles of poverty, individuals who tend to stay poor, or they rely upon the magnanimous welfare establishments. The individuals who bolster this view consists of a few political men, who condemn the government because they believe the government spends lavishly on the welfare programs for the poor. They contend that such welfare programs urge individuals to remain in poverty  in order to profit by installments consistently and that such welfare produce give no incentive for people to work as they are getting payements periodically or installments. They additionally contend that these welfare programs demoralize marriage and work. In the American culture and a few other developed countries, being employed decreases their welfare backings and it is the same if a solitary parent gets married.

Poverty in Pakistan:

Poverty has been one of the most serious issues that Pakistan faces today. It is rightly believed that poverty anywhere is a threat to the prosperity allover. About 60% population in Pakistan lives in villages. As indicated by an analysis, poverty has expanded generally from 30% to 40% during the past decade. It implies that 40% of the population is under the poverty line. In such condition, individuals lack the essential necessities of life. They are deprived of the facilities which a normal individual should get the i.e. quality education and proper medicine. Parents prefer child labor for their children rather than quality education because they are forced to think that way and so that the child can support the family from an early age and earn money.

International Organizations Reports about poverty in Pakistan

 

•          UNDP (United Nations Development Program) Report

 

As indicated by a UNDP report, 65.5% population of Pakistan earns under 2$ every day.

 

•          SPDC (Social Policy Development Center) Report

 

As indicated by the SPDC, 88 percent of Baluchistan’s populace, 51 percent of NWFP, 21 percent of Sindh and 25 percent of Punjab’s populace is prey to poverty and hardship.

 

•          World Bank Report

 

As indicated by the 2011 statistics of the World Bank, because of global financial recession poverty ratio is expanded particularly in the USA and the EU nations have pushed a great many individuals around the globe into deeper poverty. Very nearly 40% of 107 developing countries are highly exposed to poverty. Pakistan is positioned among the 43 nations who are most exposed to poverty.

 

•          Asian Development Bank Report

 

As indicated by the ADB report, poverty is spreading in Pakistan because of the rising populace, Pakistan’s inside circumstance, agricultural backwardness, unequal income division, defiance expenditure, an increase in utility charges and ascend in inefficient exercises.

 

•          Pakistan’s Planning Commission Report

 

Pakistan’s Planning Commission (2011), poverty rate has bounced from 23.9 to 37.5 percent over the most recent three years. The commission has assessed that in 2007 there were 35.5 million individuals living beneath the poverty line however in 2010 their number expanded to more than 64 million.

Poverty and hunger facts:

Do you know how many individuals are living in poverty and how many are dying because they have nothing to eat every day around the world? There are various individuals who are poor and hungry on the planet. The United Nation’s bulletin on the “eradication of Poverty” asserts that “1.2 billion individuals live on under $1 a day which is seen as the absolute poverty level. It is very shocking to realize that such a large number of individuals are living in poverty. As per the release, “24,000 individuals die of hunger every day, 16,000 of whom are kids under five years age”. What’s more, “800 million individuals, or one in every six individuals, are malnourished, 200 million of who are kids”. Thus, the average life expectancy where hunger is serious is low.